Calcium ions (Ca2+) participate in many physiological functions in the human body. The concentration of Ca in the human body is maintained constant by absorption and excretion of the intestines, bones and kidneys. Many of the hormones in the body are also closely related to the balance of Ca. Abnormal blood calcium levels may lead to multiple organ dysfunction. The total amount of calcium in the human body is about 1000-1200 grams.
What is hypercalcemia?
Hypercalcaemia refers to a disease in which blood is too high in Ca2+. The body’s general blood calcium concentration is 2.1–2.6 mmol/L (8.8–10.7 mg/dL, 4.3–5.2 mEq/L). If the concentration is higher than 2.6 mmol/L, it is High blood calcium. Mild hypercalcemia or a slow increase in calcium in the blood is usually asymptomatic. Significant symptoms can occur in all systems. Among those with higher blood calcium levels or faster onset, symptoms may include abdominal pain, bone pain, confusion, emotional depression, weakness, kidney stones or irregular heart rate, or even cardiac arrest. stop.
The severity of hypercalcemia, the concentration of calcium in the blood
To prevail, the severity of hypercalcemia is divided into:
1. Mild: Blood calcium concentration is 2.6-2.9mmol/L (10.5-11.9 mg/dL)
2. Moderate: Calcium concentration in blood is 3.0-3.4mmol/L (12.0-13.9 mg/dL)
3. Severe: blood calcium concentration is 3.5mmol / L (14.0mg / dL) or more
Symptoms for hypercalcemia
The clinical symptoms of hypercalcemia are often not obvious and non-specific. The severity of the symptoms is not directly proportional to the concentration of blood calcium. However, the rate of formation of hypercalcemia can affect the onset of symptoms.
Early symptoms: Because hypercalcemia prevents the kidneys from concentrating urine, causing nocturia, polyuria (which increases the degree of dehydration), dry mouth, easy fatigue, increased bone pain, and reduced nerve reflexes.
Late symptoms: Gastrointestinal symptoms: nausea, vomiting (which will increase the degree of dehydration), constipation, etc.
How to treatment?
After the doctor diagnoses hypercalcemia, the first step is to replenish the water, which will restore the normal blood calcium to most patients with hypercalcemia. After the water is replenished, a diuretic can be added (the thiazide diuretic should not be used because it will stimulate the kidney to reabsorb calcium).
Steroids inhibit lymphoma cells and interact with vitamin D to lower blood calcium. In patients with renal failure, dialysis is also an effective way to reduce blood calcium.
When severe hypercalcemia causes confusion, or if kidney failure causes heart failure and saline is not available, dialysis may be considered, but attention should be paid to phosphate supplementation.
These are common methods, but doctors may also differ in their personal treatment experience!