As the times change, there are also many civilized diseases in this century, including Alzheimer’s disease, arteriosclerosis, tumor, cirrhosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, nephritis of chronic renal failure, and obesity. Suffering from these may accompany you for a lifetime, which is a serious threat to your health. The following is a special introduction to common health check items. The meaning of abnormal data:
1. Basic items (including height, weight, hearing, vision, oral examination and blood pressure, etc.)
(1) BMI (Body Mass Index): Calculated by dividing body weight (kg) by height squared (m2)
Simple interpretation: <18.5 too light/Below 18.5~24 is normal/>24 is too heavy.
(2) Blood pressure: normal blood pressure range: <140/<85mmHg
Definition of hypertension: 140/90mmHg (US down to 130/80mmHg, mainly based on the US National Institute of Health published a large clinical trial “SPRINT” 2 years ago. The study found that if the systolic pressure is controlled below 120 mmHg. In the traditional standard of 140 mmHg, the total mortality rate was reduced by 27%, cardiovascular death was reduced by 43%, and heart failure was reduced by 38%. However,The World Health Organization (WHO),The European Hypertension Society, Taiwan Hypertension Society(THS),Taiwan Society of Cardiology(TSOC) still maintain 140/90 mmHg definition of hypertension)
High: Agitation, high blood pressure, ventricular hypertrophy, activity, obesity, smoking, etc.
Low: Temperature, bleeding, congenital factors, etc.
(3) Waist circumference:
normal: male < 90 cm, female < 80 cm
2. Blood routine examination:
(1) White blood cells (WBC): Normal range 5000~10000/UL
>10000: Acute infection, leukemia, etc.
<5000: viral infection, myelosuppression, autoimmune diseases, and the like.
(2) Normal ranges of red blood cells (RBC): 4,500 to 6 million/μl (4.5-6.0×106/μl) for women 4 million to 5.5 million/μl (4.0-5.5 x 106/μl)
Normal ranges of hemoglobin (Hb): male: 13-17 gm/dl, female: 12-16 gm/dl.
Normal ranges of hematocrit (Hct): male: 40.0-52.0%, female: 12-16 gm/dl.
High: burns, dehydration, hypoxia, poor heart and lung function, etc.Low: pregnancy, anemia, malnutrition, bleeding, etc.
Mean cell volume (MCV): normal: male: 80-94 fl, female: 81-99 fl.
Mean cell hemoglobin (MCH): Normal range 27-33 pg.
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC): normal: 32-36%.
High: large blood cell anemia (mainly folic acid, vitamin B12), poor gastrointestinal absorption, liver disease, drugs, Hyperglycemia.
Low: small blood cell anemia (mainly iron deficiency or lead poisoning, Mediterranean anemia), chronic disease.
(3) Normal range of platelet (PLT): 150,000-400,000/μl.
High: tuberculosis, hemolytic anemia, erythrocytosis, acute bleeding, leukemia, chronic infection, etc.
Low: autoimmune diseases, leukemia, purple spot, drug use (anticoagulant).
3.Liver function test:
(1) Albumin/Globin ratio): Normal range: 1.1~2.0 g/dL
High: overnutrition, dehydration, etc.
Low: liver disease, inflammation, malnutrition, etc.
(2) Aspartate Transaminase (SGOT or AST): Normal range: <40 u/mL
(3) Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase (SGPT or ALT): Normal: <40 u/mL
High: liver disease, myocardial infarction, muscle inflammation, hemolysis
(4) Total Bilirubin: Normal range: 0.0-1.4 mg/%
High: hemolytic jaundice, neonatal jaundice, obstructive jaundice, toxic hepatitis, viral hepatitis, etc.
(5) Direct Bilirubin: Normal range: 0.0-0.5 mg/%
High: hepatitis, cirrhosis, liver atrophy, obstructive jaundice, etc.
(6) Albumin: Normal range 3.7-5.1 g/dl
Low: kidney disease, infectious hepatitis, cirrhosis, malnutrition, various digestive diseases and other diseases.
(7) ALK-P: Normal range 37-95 u/l
High: obstructive jaundice, cirrhosis, hepatitis, various bone diseases, biliary tract diseases, fatty liver and other diseases.
(8) Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidace: Normal range: 0-30 u/l
High: liver and gallbladder disease, pancreatitis, alcohol consumption, heart failure, drug toxicity, etc.
4.Renal function test:
(1) Uric acid: Normal range: male: 4.5 to 8.0 mg/dl, female: 2.0 to 6.0 mg/dl
High: gout, excessive consumption of purine food, kidney failure, etc.
Low: Take drugs such as diuretics.
(2) Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN): Normal range 5~20mg/dL
Waste for protein metabolism, excreted by the kidneys.
High: kidney failure, bleeding, etc.
Low: malnutrition, taking diuretics, etc.
(3) Creatinine (Cr.): Normal range; 0.7~1.4 mg/dL
Metabolic waste that is decomposed by creatine is excreted through the kidneys to assess renal function.
High: stones, cancer, renal insufficiency, etc.
Low: chronic renal glomerulonephritis, lead poisoning, etc.
(1) Blood sugar: Normal range: before meals: 70~100 mg/dl, two hours after meal: <140 mg/dlWhen blood sugar > 180 mg / dL, it will appear in the urine, forming urine sugar.
(2) Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c); Normal range 4.5% to 6.5%
This item is to test blood glucose two (three months ago) (average).
High: Diabetes, insufficient secretion of insulin.
Low: Insulin injection is too much, malnutrition and so on.
(3) Triglyceride: Normal range: 300~150 mg/dL
High: arteriosclerosis, hypertension, kidney disease, etc.
Low: malnutrition, etc.
(4) Cholesterol: Normal range: <200mg/dL
High: hypercholesterolemia, arteriosclerosis, diabetes, etc.
Low: malnutrition, cirrhosis, uremia, etc.
The test value is not an abnormality, it means that you are in danger at the moment, some just want to remind you to pay more attention. The main prevention of disease is more exercise, regular life, normal diet, not overeating, daily fixed time defecation, avoiding sedentary Long standing, regular health check, can be found early, early treatment, minimize damage, let you have a good life.